Pomeranian, Know the breed

The Dwarf Spitz or Pomeranian breed is one of the most elegant breeds that exist. It is very loyal to its owner, but it also has a strong character, so it must be trained well from a young age so that it does not get away with anything.

The dwarf Spitz is a dog with a very dense scalp, even so, it does not require continuous brushing throughout the day, since two or three times a week is enough.

It is a dog of similar proportions between height and length, and its maximum weight ranges between 3 and 4 kilograms.


The Pomeranian, also called Zwergspitz or Dwarf Spitz, is small due to selective breeding, but retains the robustness and coat typical of dogs from cold climates.

The Dwarf Spitz or Pomeranian breed is one of the most elegant breeds that exist. It is very loyal to its owner, but it also has a strong character, so it must be trained well from a young age so that it does not get away with anything.

The dwarf Spitz is a dog with a very dense scalp, even so, it does not require continuous brushing throughout the day, since two or three times a week is enough.

It is a dog of similar proportions between height and length, and its maximum weight ranges between 3 and 4 kilograms.

The Pomeranian, also called Zwergspitz or Dwarf Spitz, is small due to selective breeding, but retains the robustness and coat typical of dogs from cold climates.

Origin of the breed Pomeranian 

The Pomeranian belongs to the Spitz family, the oldest companion dogs in existence. Descended from a Neolithic dog, they were the first to live with humans in the lake villages of prehistoric Europe. This type of dog was used for guarding, hunting, pulling sledges and keeping nomads company. The Spitz spread throughout Europe and in each region the breed evolved differently due to crossbreeding. The Pomeranian is the smallest of the five German Spitz varieties.

Pomerania (Polish, Pomorze; German, Pommern; Russian, Померания) is a historical-geographical region located in northern Poland and Germany on the Baltic coast.

Pomeranian dog, picture 1885

Character – Coexistence – Behavior – Education

Character Pomeranian 

The Pomeranian has a curious, docile, courageous and daring character. It is a self-confident dog that is aloof with strangers but tender and calm with its owners. He is very playful and likes to run. It has a great intelligence and needs to be intellectually stimulated.

The Pomeranian is undoubtedly a breed with great appeal to those who want a small, compact and elegant dog with a lively and lively disposition, a great personality and enormous energy. The intelligence and incredible energy of this breed make up for its diminutive size and, of course, the breed’s dense double coat, which we can see in a variety of colors, is the Pomeranian’s most glorious feature.

Pomeranian Connivance

It is said that the Pomeranian is a dog made to be spoiled and that both it and its owner are happiest when this is the case. That said, one should be careful how one spoils one’s Pomeranian.

It should not be forgotten that he belongs to the Spitz family and is therefore a very loyal and protective dog to his owners. However, the Pomeranian can be quite reserved with strangers and has a tendency to bark at them.

Behavior Pomeranian 

This is an alert and curious breed that always keeps busy, but is also brave and stubborn. One of the most independent breeds in the miniature dog group, the Pomeranian tends to have a somewhat surly temperament, but its affectionate disposition is very appealing. Although very small, this breed has a very loud bark and is a good watchdog.

It is necessary for the Pomeranian to know exactly who is boss, and you must be gentle and firm during training. Otherwise, he may become too demanding if we let him get away with it.

Although the Pomeranian is small enough to live in an apartment or house of limited size and is a dog that will largely play on its own, owners should provide regular exercise. This breed can be an especially faithful companion for elderly people and bring many years of joy and companionship.

Education Pomeranian 

Because the Pomeranian is a quick learner and intelligent, the breed seems always willing to learn. Obedience training seems to be very satisfying to their specimens and they more than likely enjoy learning some funny things.

Although the Pomeranian is a fairly small breed compared to most, some specimens do participate in mini-agility and seem to be successful.

Warnings with Pomeranian 

Because Pomeranians are so small, this breed is not usually recommended for families with small children. The danger is that children will treat the Pomeranian as if it were a toy and may unintentionally hurt it.

When bringing one animal close to another, it is always essential to watch carefully. Many Pomeranians are quite ready to relate to other animals with whom they share a home, but depends on the personality of the other animal. When a Pomeranian finds another canine or feline friend, the relationship is usually long-lasting and sincere.

The Pomeranian may show aggression towards other animals if it does not know them, and often shows predisposition to chase unfamiliar cats. The Pomeranian rarely feels fear towards other dogs, no matter how big they are, so you must be careful that nothing happens to such a small dog when he shows his courage.

Pomeranian and cat

Care and Health

Despite being a shaggy dog, the Pomeranian does not require excessive hair care, brushing two or three times a week is enough.

He loves to walk and to keep him happy it is necessary to walk him daily.

It is advisable to control his barking from an early age.

The Pomeranian is a dog of strong health and rarely falls ill. However, it can suffer from the common problems that affect such small breeds as patellar luxation, open skull, low blood sugar and cryptorchidism.

Despite its small size, the Pomeranian is generally a healthy dog, but, as with many other breeds, there are certain medical problems.

Possible medical problems

Pomeranians have been known to have problems with their knees, known as patellar luxation, a fairly common problem among miniature breeds. Many dogs that suffer from patellar luxation live with the problem without experiencing pain.

Occasionally Pomeranians can suffer from problems with their intervertebral discs, which can be very painful.

As with many other small breeds, some Pomeranians lose their teeth at a relatively young age. It is therefore important to pay special attention to the care of the teeth and gums to keep them as healthy as possible, thus preventing decay, infection and the resulting loss of teeth.

Another dental problem that can occur in this breed is retained baby teeth, which means that the puppy’s baby teeth may not come out on their own. If they still remain in the mouth when the adult teeth have started to appear, it is a good idea to take your dog to the veterinarian to have them extracted.

An open or unsealed fontanel is a hole in the skull, and this problem can sometimes be found in small Pomeranians. If there are soft parts of the skull, serious problems can occur, but if not there is no reason for concern. Obviously, there is a danger if the dog bumps the skull on this soft part, but the layers covering the brain are tough and there is a liquid cushion to protect it from small bumps.

Most of the open fontanelles have closed by the time the Pomeranian is one year old. Even in the latter case, affected animals can live for many years.

In the Pomeranian, breathing difficulties may be caused by tracheal collapse. Many dogs are prone to “choking”.

Some Pomeranians may suffer if they are in smoky or dusty environments because of their narrow throats.

Kidney stones are not uncommon in Pomeranians although, of course, they can occur in many dog breeds. Because the male’s urethra is longer and narrower, obstructions are more common in this sex.

Although kidney stones can occur in dogs as young as two months of age, they are more common in adults between two and ten years of age.

Newborn Pomeranian puppies are exceptionally small and can be held in the palm of the hand. Because they are so small and delicate, it is important that they be handled with extreme care.

Although females are usually larger than males, small females may have to be delivered by Caesarean section

Puppi pomeranian at vet

History of Pom

Although well known today as one of the smallest breeds of the miniature dog group, the Pomeranian was, once upon a time, quite a bit larger in size. Those who are not familiar with this breed will probably be surprised by some old pictures in which it appears next to its elegant owners, as they seem very large by today’s standards.

Origin of the Pomeranian name for the breed 

The name of the breed comes from its place of origin, Pomerania, which was an ancient duchy on the Baltic coast that lay between eastern Germany and western Poland. The Pomeranian descended from European working dogs. These dogs were also highly prized in classical Rome and Greece, where they were held in high esteem as ladies’ pets. In classical Greek times the Pomeranian was called “Maltese Dog”, which has sometimes caused some confusion.

First record of the word “Pomeranian” as a breed in history 

The earliest record of the use of the name “Pomeranian” appears in Voyage of Discovery Around the World, written by George Vancouver. He wrote that on May 24, 1792, he visited an Indian village where he found several dogs that “resembled Pomeranians, though of somewhat larger size.” He said that they were shorn and that the people had clothes and blankets made from the hair of these dogs.

Early work of the Pomeranian in history 

Dogs of this type were originally used to control sheep and cattle, and to herd reindeer. Generally known as Spitz Wolfdogs (Wolfspitz), they were the ancestors of today’s Pomeranian, Schipperke, German Spitz, Pomeranian, Elkhound and Keeshond. Other names by which the ancestors of this breed were known were Fox-dog, Spitz-dog and Loup-Loup. In fact, one of the animals against which they protected the herds was the wolf, and it was said that this dog never failed when attacking.

The Pomeranian was not only known in Western Europe, but was also used in the wastelands of Russia and Siberia to pull sleds. The Russian Laika, a breed known for its use in space travel, also has ancestry similar to that of the Pomeranian. It is generally accepted that the Pomeranian is descended from one of the Spitz-type breeds of the northern Arctic. The Pomeranian, which can be found on the Arctic coast of Siberia, and the great white Pomeranian, formerly found in Great Britain, had many similarities.

Pomeranian old style

Colors of the Pomeranian

The colors of the Pom are many and it seems that in the past several European countries specialized in different colors. The white Pomeranian came from France, while the red came from Italy. Although there were black and white Pomeranians in the 19th century, these were not, except rarely, good examples of the breed. Cream and red were the most prized at the time. In the 1880s, they were said to be limited in England, practically weighing about 9 kg. Anyway we see, thanks to author Dalziel, that there was a line of dark fawn specimens near Birmingham around 1860.

In 1911, Britain’s first orange Pomeranian was Offley Henry Drew who, after mating with Ch. Mars, laid the foundation for orange to become a very popular color. It was not until the 1930s that a wide range of colors became available in Britain, with orange being a color that was particularly fashionable in the 20th century. White specimens are now only occasionally seen, and black seems to have experienced something of a resurgence in the last 20 years.

The ancestors of the Pomeranian were larger than this diminutive breed, which today weighs only 1.8 to 2.5 kg. Some of the ancient dogs weighed as much as 22.5 kg, although it has been bred down in size over the past 200 years. Queen Victoria of England’s dogs weighed an average of 6 kg.

Several colours Pomeranian

Artistic representations of the Pomeranian 

In the British Museum there is an ancient Greek bronze vase from the 2nd century B.C. On it we find depicted a group of winged horses and at their feet is a small Pomeranian-type dogIn a famous Athenian street there was a work showing a small dog of the Spitz type jumping over the daughter of the family while she was saying goodbye. It dates from 56 B.C.

The famous artist Sir Thomas Gainsborough is one of those who portrayed Pomeranian dogs on several occasions. In the Wallace Collection in London there is a particularly famous painting of the actress Mrs. Robinson with a large white Pomeranian sitting beside her.

Queen Charlotte, the German wife of King George III, brought a pair of Pomeranians to Britain in 1767. Their names were Phoebe (or Phebe) and Mercury. They lived at Kew (West London), as did the artist Gainsborough, which is why we can see many pictures of these royal dogs.

Pomeranian Bitch and Pup – Thomas Gainsborough – 1777

Official recognition of the Pomeranian breed 

In 1870the Kennel Club of England officially recognized the Pomeranian as a “Spitzdog”. The breed became known to the British public when Queen Victoria took an interest in it. Although she was Queen Charlotte’s granddaughter, it seems that she saw the breed for the first time during a trip to Italy in 1888. She obtained several of these dogs in Florence and among them was Marco, with whom she achieved notable success at the Crufts beauty dog show and other competitions. Marco weighed 5.5 kg. Queen Victoria, a great fan of many types of dogs, had a Pomeranian kennel, under the Windsor kennel. Charles Henry Lane was invited to inspect her majesty’s kennel and, as might be expected, spoke very highly of it, as all the care and consideration for the welfare of the dogs was appreciable. Mostly, he described the dogs as possessing what he called “not acceptable colors”, although some were very beautiful. Although some were large, most were of what he considered “small-medium” size.

Some of these dogs were shown at shows and there is a rather amusing story relating to the time when His Majesty wanted to show three Pomeranians, who had a color that was not common in British show dogs in England. A special category was created for her dogs and two of them were lucky enough to be awarded a first prize ex aequo. Queen Victoria loved this breed so much that when she was dying, her Pomeranian Turi was always at her bedside. With the help, in part, of Queen Victoria, Britain’s interest in this breed grew.

Pomeranian breeders and sales 

Mr. Gladstone was another important person who was captivated by the breed and is said to have owned a black Pomeranian. In the early 20th century there was a saying, “Pomeranians make money,” as they sold for up to £250. Relative to their weight, Pomeranians were probably the most expensive dog breed one could buy. That said, supply soon outstripped demand and the value of the breed dropped soon after. The Pomeranian was being bred at such a rapid rate that it would not be allowed by a breed society today.

One newspaper article gave the example of a female who had already had three litters by May 1903, when she was not yet two years old. In her three litters she had given birth to 24 puppies in the space of 54 weeks. Poor female, we don’t even want to think about her.

A 1904 quote reads“There is no species of miniature dog for ladies that has achieved universal popularity in so short a time as the Pomeranian.” At the beginning of the 20th century, several important people in the canine world expressed their opinion in this regard.

For Miss Hamilton, who regularly achieved triumphs with this breed, the ideal Pomeranian was “a small, intelligent creature full of life and fun, faithful to its master or mistress, as well as sharing, in the best way a dog could, all its joys and sorrows.” Miss Hamilton said she had met several who were almost human in their keenness, and who showed all their support when their owners were worried. She considered that they were as clever at carrying out tricks as Poodles, and that, although of an excitable nature, they never allowed their rage to overcome their discretion.

The Pomeranian Club drew up the first English standard for this breed in 1891, the same year as the founding of this canine society. However, larger specimens soon fell out of fashion and during the early years of the 20th century, breeders were already producing very small Pomeranians more like the breed we know today.

Marco the Queen's Pomeranian

“Marco on the Queen’s Breakfast Table” painted by Charles Burton Barber in 1893.

Pomeranians at early dog shows

At first the breed was exhibited divided into two sizes: above and below 3.6 kg, although the larger size did not achieve great popularity. At the Crufts Beauty Dog Show in 1894 the weight of the Pomeranian was established as follows: “Above and below 7.2 kg; above and below 3.2 kg. Those weighing less than 3.2 kg shall be called Miniature”.

Currently, in Great Britain, the weight requested in the breed standard is only 1.8-2 kg for males and 2-2.5 kg for females. In most shows, however, the division was made mainly by color, a system that persisted for some years, but when breeders realized that it was difficult to breed small white dogs, this color lost ground.

Entries in beauty contests grew significantly from the early years of this breed’s participation. In 1890 no Pomeranians were exhibited, in 1891 there were 14 and by 1901 the number was 60. Frequently there were more than 50 Pomeranian entries in dog shows and sometimes a popular judge could get entries of up to 100 dogs, with about 25 entries in each category. In 1905, 105 Pomeranians were entered in a dog show, confirming their rapid growth in popularity.

In 1911, the Kennel Club of England tried to put an end to all-breed haircuts, arguing that all dogs should be presented in their natural coat. As the Pomeranian is a hair clipped breed, the coat looks unkempt when the ears are covered by long fur. This provoked the ire of the breed world and absurd proposals were made to avoid this.

Fortunately, this situation did not last long, for in April 1913 the Kennel Club wrote to the Pomeranian Club asking if they wished this breed to be included among those in which haircuts were permitted.

Two years later, the same Kennel Club decided that dogs of this breed should all be entered together in shows, regardless of weight, and that only one set of Challenge Certificates could be awarded at championship shows. It was suggested that the heavier dogs be entered as “Spitz”.

The attempt to create a “Spitz” breed failed, even though some registrations were made. Even so, in 1916 the Pomeranian Club awarded Certificates of Merit to dogs over 3.2 kg, an idea that eventually died out due to lack of interest.

World War I caused major problems in the canine world and, presumably due to its German origin, the Pomeranian fell out of favor with the public. It had been the most popular miniature breed, but its place was taken by the Pekingese and later (in 1962) by the Yorkshire Terrier.

By the 1930s, the size of the Pomeranian had been considerably reduced to 4 kg and by this time the coat had developed its characteristic dense frills.

Firsts Pomeranian in the USA 

In the USA, the first Pomeranian listed in the American Kennel Club (AKC) stud book was Dick, in 1888. The breed was recognized in the USA in 1900 and that same year the first Best of Breed award was given to a brown Pomeranian named Nubian Rebel, who would later become champion.

In 1909, the American Pomeranian Club was accepted as a member kennel society of the AKC. Shortly thereafter, the club held its first single-breed show in which an English judge attracted 138 entries.

At this show a black Pomeranian named Ch. Canner Prince Charming was awarded Best of Breed. Another famous black Pomeranian with a similar name (Ch. Great Elms Prince Charming II), owned by Skip Piazza and Olga Baker, was the first to win at the famous Westminster Kennel Club dog show in New York City.

In 1996, the first brindle Pomeranian to be awarded the title of champion in the U.S. was Rumm Tumm Tigger, owned by Jan Le.

General Appearance

The Pomeranian is a square, well-proportioned dog, with a height at the withers of up to 22 cm and weighing between 1.5 and 3.5 kg.

Today’s Pomeranian is a small dog and, contrary to larger breeds, males are usually smaller than females, your dog should be proportionate to its size, says the standard. The Pomeranian is a small, sturdy and compact dog that moves nimbly and has a charm with a certain pride and majesty that makes us think he has a big heart inside that small body.

The Pomeranian’s beautiful “foxy” head and charming expressions are highlighted by his small, stiff ears. The tail, with its abundant fur, is carried over the back, reaching up to the head and helping to create the impression of a circle.

The colors of the Pomeranian are many and varied, and the range from which we can choose is enormous: it goes from black, brown, white, orange, wolf grey and other colors. The color of the pigment of the nose is black, except in brown-coated dogs, which will have a dark brown color.

The abundant coat is double-coated. The undercoat is soft and woolly and the outer coat is smooth, rough in texture and does not stick to the body. The fur on the neck, chest and front of the shoulders is abundant and forms a ruff. There is good fringing on the forelimbs and hindquarters, and the tail is covered with a rich coat. This means that this coat must be cared for, although grooming can be a pleasure for both dog and owner

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